U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE
Bureau of International Information Programs
CO.NX Chat: Conspiracy Theories Q & A
Guest: Todd Leventhal
Date: July 14, 2009
Time: 09:00 EDT (13:00 GMT)
Todd Leventhal: Thanks for joining us. Good morning. I've worked on a few questions that were sent in previously and will post those answers momentarily. Some of the questions take a while to research, but I'll do the best I can.
Q [naboth Benjamin]: HIV & AIDs origin was it created
A [Todd Leventhal]: Naboth Benjamin asks about the origin of HIV and AIDS – was it created? I assume you mean was it artificially created by man?
A [Todd Leventhal]: The answer is no. When AIDS first was recognized, its origin was unknown, but science has largely solved this mystery.
A [Todd Leventhal]: There is strong scientific evidence that the AIDS virus originated as a subspecies of a virus that commonly infects a western equatorial African chimpanzee, Pan troglodyte. An article in Nature magazine in February 1999 explained how scientists used DNA analysis to determine that "all HIV-1 strains known to infect man" were closely related to a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) found in this chimpanzee.
A [Todd Leventhal]: Dr. Beatrice Hahn of the University of Alabama and her colleagues made this discovery after analyzing frozen blood and tissue samples from four chimpanzees, including a lab chimp named Marilyn, which had died in 1985. Modern tests for HIV were not available at that time, and Marilyn's tissue and blood samples were rediscovered only in 1998, making the new analysis possible.
A [Todd Leventhal]: Other scientific discoveries place the oldest known human case of HIV as occurring in 1959. A February 1998 article in Nature reported that a plasma sample obtained in early 1959 from an adult male living in what is now Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in Africa had tested positive for HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS.
A [Todd Leventhal]: In 2000, scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory used powerful supercomputers to analyze the relationships among various strains of HIV-1. Their calculations showed that the main HIV-1 virus probably established itself in humans in about 1930, as explained in an article in the June 8, 2000 issue of Science, "Timing the Ancestor of the HIV-1 Pandemic Strains.”
A [Todd Leventhal]: Thus, it is clear that: 1) HIV-1, the virus that caused the AIDS pandemic, could not be man-made because direct evidence shows that AIDS has existed in humans at least since 1959 and scientific analysis shows that it was probably present some 75-80 years ago, which is long before humans had the means to genetically engineer viruses. 2) HIV-1 is very closely related to a similar virus found in equatorial West African chimpanzees. 3) Social and economic conditions in western equatorial Africa changed dramatically in the 20th century, which could explain why the AIDS pandemic emerged at this time and not previously.
A [Todd Leventhal]: For more information, see an article I have written on this subject, “AIDS as a biological weapon.” http://www.america.gov/st/pubs-english/2005/January/20050114151424atlahtnevel8.222598e-02.html
Q [IRC Yaounde 1]: Hello Todd. I was surprise to hear that the AIDS virus has the same chemical presentation like hepatitis and measles, which are very contagious disease. Is this allegation true?
A [Todd Leventhal]: IRC Yaounde 1: I really don't know about this. I'm not a scientist and would have to research it. I'll see if I can find out anything in the next few minutes.
Q [Gerak]: Is the assasination of Kennedy a conspiracy?
Q [Olabisi]: the Mafia and US Govt killed Kennedy and not Oswald. That's what I believe
Q [tito]: how about jfk assasination
Q [Alan]: The true story behind the kenndey assasination. Rumour has it that the CIA plotted the murder.
A [Todd Leventhal]: The true story behind the Kennedy assassination is that Lee Harvey Oswald, acting as a lone assassin, killed President Kennedy.
A [Todd Leventhal]: The most comprehensive book on this subject is “Reclaiming History: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy” by Vincent Bugliosi, published in 2007. In this 1600-page book, Bugliosi establishes clearly that Oswald acted alone.
A [Todd Leventhal]: From an early age, Oswald was a bitter, angry loner, ill-suited to working with, much less taking orders, from others. In grade school, he refused to salute the American flag. At age 13, he told his school psychiatrist “I dislike everybody.” He quit or was fired from every job he ever held, except the factory job he had in the Soviet Union. He defected to the USSR in 1959, requesting Soviet citizenship “because I am a Communist,” complaining that he “lived in a decadent capitalist society, where the workers are slaves.” Even after returning to the United States in 1962, Oswald remained strongly pro-Communist, idealizing Cuban communism — not the type of person who would be likely to want to work for the CIA, or whom they would be likely to entrust with the most sensitive mission imaginable.
A [Todd Leventhal]: The KGB observed Oswald while he was in the USSR and concluded that he was a “mediocre, uninteresting, useless man,” in the words of Vladimir Semichastny, who headed the KGB when Oswald lived in the USSR. Semichastny added, “I had always respected the CIA and FBI, and we knew their work and what they were capable of. It was clear that Oswald was not an agent, couldn’t be an agent, for the CIA or FBI,” noting that “Oswald’s actions in Minsk [where he lived in the USSR] were not those of a foreign agent. His primary interest was in attending dances.”
A [Todd Leventhal]: Bugliosi cites one of Oswald’s friends when he lived in Fort Worth, Texas, George de Mohrenschildt, who wrote: I never would believe that any government would be stupid enough to trust Lee with anything important … an unstable individual, mixed-up individual, uneducated individual, without background. What government would give him any confidential work? No government would.
A [Todd Leventhal]: In April 1963, Oswald attempted to kill retired General Edwin Walker, a fierce anti-Communist. This was the act characteristic of an unstable individual who hated anti-Communists, not that of a government agent. In August 1963, he planned to hijack a plane to Cuba — not a likely activity for a U.S. government agent. In September, he travelled to Mexico City, visiting both the Cuban and Soviet embassies in an unsuccessful attempt to travel to Cuba — the act of someone who hated America, not a U.S. government agent.
A [Todd Leventhal]: Bugliosi also points out that Oswald had no help from any co-conspirators when attempting to flee after killing President Kennedy, taking a bus and then a cab back to his room in Dallas.
A [Todd Leventhal]: Oswald only had a total of $183.87 (http://www.archives.gov/research/jfk/warren-commission-report/appendix-14.html) to his name when he killed President Kennedy. He lived in a tiny (1.5 meters by four meters) room, which he rented for eight dollars per week. Nobody had paid him big bucks to be a hit man.
A [Todd Leventhal]: Oswald lived in a world of grandiose, make-believe delusions. He thought the USSR would be paradise; later Cuba. He told his wife that someday he would be “prime minister” of the United States – a job that has never existed. He was a nut obsessed with making his mark in history, which he, tragically, did, all by himself.
CO.NX Moderator (Mark): If you are just joining us, welcome. Please feel free to introduce yourself to our chat group.
Q [edgewalker]: Why Bin Laden ain't wanted by the FBI for 9/11? http://www.fbi.gov/wanted/topten/fugitives/laden.htm
A [Todd Leventhal]: Edgewalker asks why Osama bin Laden is not wanted by the FBI for the September 11 attacks in its “Most Wanted Terrorist” poster on bin Laden.This is a very good question. It seems puzzling that bin Laden would not be wanted by the FBI for the September 11 attacks, but the reason is because he has never been formally indicted in a U.S. court of law for these attacks.
A [Todd Leventhal]: The FBI poster (http://www.fbi.gov/wanted/terrorists/terbinladen.htm) says he is wanted for the August 7, 1988 bombings of the U.S. embassies in Tanzania and Kenya, for which he was formally indicted. But he has not yet been formally charged with the September 11 attacks in a U.S. court of law, so he is not wanted for this reason. This was explained by an FBI spokesman and others knowledgeable about such matters in an August 28, 2006 article (http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/27/AR2006082700687_pf.html) in The Washington Post.
A [Todd Leventhal]: I asked the FBI about this and they said: “Bin Laden is currently indicted on the following charges: Murder of U.S. Nationals Outside the United States, Conspiracy to Murder U.S. Nationals Outside the United States, and Attack on a Federal Facility Resulting in Death. These charges relate to the 1998 embassy bombings and are sufficient for the U.S. Government to arrest Bin Laden and bring him to justice. Bin Laden has not yet been criminally charged with the September 11 attacks. The decision to charge Bin Laden belongs to the U.S. Department of Justice. Superseding indictments may be issued in the event of Bin Laden's arrest.”
A [Todd Leventhal]: It is certain that bin Laden planned and directed the September 11 attacks. He has admitted this on several occasions. For example, in an audiotape (http://www.news24.com/News24/World/News/0,,2-10-1462_1938283,00.html) released on May 23, 2006, bin Laden stated: “I begin by talking about the honorable brother Zacarias Moussaoui. The truth is that he has no connection whatsoever with the events of September 11th, and I am certain of what I say, because I was responsible for entrusting the 19 brothers - Allah have mercy upon them - with those raids, and I did not assign brother Zacarias to be with them on that mission.”
A [Todd Leventhal]: For other information confirming bin Laden’s role in directing the September 11 attacks, see an article I have written on this subject: http://www.america.gov/st/webchat-english/2009/April/20090501132747atlahtnevel4.168338e-02.html
Q [Asazi1]: Explain ILLUMINATI
A [Todd Leventhal]: The Illuminati was a secret society that existed 230 years ago in Bavaria, in southern Germany. It was founded in 1776 by professor Adam Weishaupt and dissolved about 10 years later.
A [Todd Leventhal]: Weishaupt wanted to create an organization that would free the world “from all established religious and political authority.” It was a group of free thinkers, as was popular in Europe at that time. By the early 1780s, it had about 2,500 members, mostly in German-speaking areas.
A [Todd Leventhal]: The Illuminati became notorious around 1800, when two books were published falsely claiming that the group had caused the French revolution in 1789. The group had disbanded before then, and its influence had been in German, not French, circles. But the French revolution was an unprecedented, violent attack on traditional authority; many people could not understand how it could happen. The explanation that a secret society had caused this great historical upheaval was convincing to some.
A [Todd Leventhal]: In subsequent years, this long extinct organization has been blamed by conspiracy theorists for misdeeds all over the world. These claims are pure fantasy.
Q [Gamila]: is walking on the moon a conspiracy too?
A [Todd Leventhal]: Gamila, ever since the moon landing in 1969, conspiracy theorists have claimed it was faked and that the pictures of astronauts on the Moon were actually taken in a studio. As evidence, conspiracy theorists say the flag that the astronauts planted on the moon appears to be flapping in the wind, but there is no air on the Moon, so the picture must have been taken on Earth.
A [Todd Leventhal]: There is a simple explanation (http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/history/flag/flag.htm) for this. NASA (the National Aeronautics and Space Administration) didn’t want the flag to hang limply, so it constructed a telescoping, horizontal bar to which the top of the flag was attached. When the astronauts erected the flag, they could not get this bar to extend fully. This caused a kink in the flag, which made it appear to be rippling in the wind. Later crews left the flag like this because they liked the way it looked. Conspiracy theorists didn’t know this little-known fact, and present the puzzle about the flag’s appearance as supposed “proof” the moon landing never took place.
A [Todd Leventhal]: Another piece of so-called “evidence” for conspiracy theorists is the fact that there are no stars visible in the background of pictures taken on the moon. This also has a simple explanation (http://science.howstuffworks.com/moon-landing-hoax.htm/printable).
A [Todd Leventhal]: On the moon, just like on Earth, bright lights—like those in a big city—make it very difficult to see stars in the sky. For example, when bright lights are shown on television reporters reporting at a nighttime news scene, you can’t see stars in the sky because the lights on the reporter are too bright.
A [Todd Leventhal]: It’s the same on the moon. The bright light from the sun reflecting off the moon’s surface makes it impossible to see stars in the sky. That’s simple photography; no conspiracy theory.
CO.NX Moderator (Mark): There are many questions coming in. Todd Leventhal will try to answer as many as he can.
Q [Zack]: What do you think of the 11/9 conspiracy theory, rumours had it something to do with Rockefeller, is it true? or do you have another theory? Thank you
A [Todd Leventhal]: Zack, I had not heard this theory before. I did a Google search for Rockefeller and September 11, which led to a claim (http://www.jonesreport.com/articles/281006_rockefeller_911.html) by Hollywood film maker Aaron Russo that, 11 months before the September 11 attacks, Nicholas Rockefeller told him there would be “an event” that would lead the United States to invade Afghanistan, Iraq, and Venezuela. Russo believed this was a reference to the September 11 attacks.
A [Todd Leventhal]: One way to evaluate the trustworthiness of what people say about private conversations is to examine what they have said about facts that are known publicly and can be checked much more easily.
A [Todd Leventhal]: In a YouTube video (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7nD7dbkkBIA) explaining what Rockefeller allegedly told him, Russo also said that there is a plan to create a “North American Union” between Canada, Mexico, and the United States, which would have a common currency called the “amero.”
A [Todd Leventhal]: Articles (http://www.snopes.com/politics/business/amerocoin.asp) on the “amero” at the Urban Legends Reference Pages make it clear that no government has ever suggested creating a common North American currency, although one academic has suggested this and one private mint has created “private-issue fantasy patterns coins” called ameros, which they offer for sale.
A [Todd Leventhal]: In other words, Russo claims there is a gigantic conspiracy in which bankers want to control the world, but has only vague allegations and fantasy coins as evidence.
A [Todd Leventhal]: I believe his alleged conversation with Rockefeller is similar nonsense. Osama bin Laden and other top al Qa’ida leaders have admitted that they conducted the September 11 attacks and all the facts point to this conclusion. For more details, see my article “Al Qaida Confirms It Carried Out the September 11 Attacks” (http://www.america.gov/st/webchat-english/2009/April/20090501132747atlahtnevel4.168338e-02.html) and other articles on the September 11 attacks on my blog, “Rumors, Myths, and Fabrications.” (http://blogs.america.gov/rumors/)
Q [edgewalker]: Petition to investigate 9/11. http://www.911wwc.org/2008/09/investigate-911.html Will there ever be an INDEPENDENT all encompassing investigation of 9/11?
A [Todd Leventhal]: Edgewalker, the 9/11 Commission was independent and all-encompassing, although I assume you would disagree. The commission members were composed of five Republicans and five Democrats, who were independent of the executive and legislative branches of our government. They had nearly 80 full-time employees, contractors, and detailees on staff. The staff included a former Deputy Director of Intelligence, a former State Attorney General and Deputy Attorney General, a professor of international history and foreign intelligence from Harvard, experts on cross-border money transfers, several former federal prosecutors, and several staff from the Congressional Joint Inquiry.The commission interviewed more than 1,200 people in 10 countries and reviewed more than two and a half million pages of documents.
Q [Ali khan]: is dividing pakistan into smaller segment,a US agenda?
A [Todd Leventhal]: Ali, the United States wants a free, prosperous, and united Pakistan. Since 1951, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) has provided nearly $7 billion to support Pakistan’s development efforts. This number does not include military assistance or funds for counter-terrorism, which have been substantial. We are the major bilateral donor in Pakistan.
A [Todd Leventhal]: In late June, the U.S. Senate approved a bill to triple U.S. civilian aid to Pakistan, to 7.5 billion dollars in humanitarian and economic aid over the next five years.
A [Todd Leventhal]: The bill also ties military aid to certification that Pakistan security forces are doing their utmost against Al-Qa’ida, the Taliban, and other groups that seek to destabilize Pakistan, while, at the same time, "not materially interfering" in Pakistan’s political or judicial processes.
A [Todd Leventhal]: All these measures and funds are intended to help Pakistan defend its democracy, build prosperity, and enhance its stability.
Q [Cula 2]: How did this entire idea conspiracy theory came up?
A [Todd Leventhal]: Cula 2, conspiracy theories have been around for hundreds, probably thousands of years. In past centuries, people believed that some people were possessed by the devil or were witches. In the modern era—the past 200 years or so—these suspicions have been replaced by conspiracy theories that are usually much more political.
A [Todd Leventhal]: The typical form of a conspiracy theory is that world events are being secretly controlled behind the scenes by some shadowy group—the U.S. government, the CIA, an alleged international Jewish conspiracy—whatever one’s favorite devil figure is. Unlike real human beings, the members of this group are supposedly all powerful, extremely evil, and extraordinarily competent.
A [Todd Leventhal]: In reality, the world does not work like this. Individuals may be quite evil but, in open societies, large bureaucratic organizations tend to be bland, boring, timid, and not very exciting. In addition, the world is an extraordinarily vast and complex place and it is impossible for any group in an open society to secretly manipulate faraway events.
A [Todd Leventhal]: Nevertheless, many people find conspiracy theories compelling. They seem to appeal to our sense of danger and excitement and have a stark good vs. evil moral framework, which many people find appealing. They seem to be part of the human psyche and will probably exist forever.
Q [Tanbir ul Islam Siddiqui]: ‘Iraq has got the Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)’ proved wrong finally. Wasn’t that a conspiracy?
A [Todd Leventhal]: Tanbir, I have not found any evidence of a conspiracy. Instead, I believe Iraq’s consistent pattern of concealment, evasion, and lying about WMD led Western governments to believe that Iraq was concealing WMD. Iraq did not, in fact, have WMD stockpiles, but its behavior fed suspicions that it did.
A [Todd Leventhal]: First, after the 1991 Gulf War, we discovered that Iraq had been very close to building a nuclear weapon. Shortly before the war, Iraq had diverted material from civilian nuclear reactors to the military, believing it could make a nuclear weapon by the end of 1991. The world totally missed this.
A [Todd Leventhal]: Second, when U.N. WMD inspections began shortly after the 1991 war, Iraq’s many, many evasions left no doubt that they were hiding something important, although it was not clear what it was.
A [Todd Leventhal]: Third, after Saddam’s son-in-law Hussein Kamel, who had supervised Iraqi weapons programs, fled to Jordan in 1995, Iraq suddenly revealed a vast amount of information about its WMD programs, which it supposedly had just discovered on a “chicken farm.” Still, despite the disclosure of 1.5 million pages of documents, the inspectors concluded much information was still being concealed.
A [Todd Leventhal]: Iraq’s pattern of concealment, evasion, and lying naturally fed suspicions that it was hiding WMD. As former UN inspector Charles Duelfer wrote in his book Hide and Seek: the Search for Truth in Iraq:
A [Todd Leventhal]: “The Iraqis did not have WMD. But neither could we ever trust them. Given the track record of past concealment and their reluctant admissions of key program elements, [UN inspectors] had no reason to give Iraq the benefit of the doubt. Moreover, we knew that Iraq’s account was wrong at particular points and those points were more logically explained by a decision by Iraq to retain weapons than by the explanations Iraq offered, which were akin to “the dog ate my homework.”
A [Todd Leventhal]: After the 2003 war, Duelfer headed a massive U.S. effort to research the WMD issue thoroughly. Its findings were published in the so-called Duelfer Report (https://www.cia.gov/library/reports/general-reports-1/iraq_wmd_2004/index.html). The report’s “key findings” (https://www.cia.gov/library/reports/general-reports-1/iraq_wmd_2004/Comp_Report_Key_Findings.pdf) state:
A [Todd Leventhal]: Saddam wanted to recreate Iraq’s WMD capability—which was essentially destroyed in 1991—after sanctions were removed and Iraq’s economy stabilized, but probably with a different mix of capabilities to that which previously existed. Saddam aspired to develop a nuclear capability—in an incremental fashion, irrespective of international pressure and the resulting economic risks—but he intended to focus on ballistic missile and tactical chemical warfare (CW) capabilities.
Q [Boris]: How do you account for the collapse of World Trade Center 7?
A [Todd Leventhal]: Boris, a three-year-long investigation by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) concluded that the collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) north tower ignited fires in WTC 7, which burned out of control for seven hours because the water supply from the city water main had been damaged by the collapse of the twin towers. This caused the building’s steel beams to expand, which eventually dislodged a critical floor beam on the 13th floor and led to that floor’s failure. This, in turn, triggered the collapse of the seven floors below it. This chain of events left a critical vertical column unsupported over a nine-story length, causing it to buckle and triggering the progressive collapse of the building. See the NIST videos on the collapse of WTC 7. (http://www.nist.gov/public_affairs/releases/wtc_videos/wtc_videos.html)
A [Todd Leventhal]: The NIST investigators examined evidence for a controlled demolition. They concluded: Blast events did not play a role in the collapse of WTC 7. Based on visual and audio evidence and the use of specialized computer modeling to simulate hypothetical blast events, NIST concluded that blast events did not occur, and found no evidence whose explanation required invocation of a blast event. Blast from the smallest charge capable of failing a critical column (i.e., Column 79) would have resulted in a sound level of 130 dB [decibels] to 140 dB at a distance of at least half a mile [805 meters] if unobstructed by surrounding building (such as along Greenwich Street or West Broadway). This sound level is consistent with standing next to a jet plane engine and more than ten times louder than being in front of the speakers at a rock concert. There were no witness reports of such a loud noise, nor was such a noise heard on the audio tracks of video recordings of the WTC collapse. For more information, see the articl
A [Todd Leventhal]: For more information, see the article I have written, “The Collapse of World Trade Center 7.” (http://www.america.gov/st/webchat-english/2009/April/20090428110108atlahtnevel0.7957117.html)
CO.NX Moderator (Mark): Today's webchat is part of the CO.NX Webchat program. We host weekly discussins on a number of topics and in a number of languages. Find out about our chats at http://co-nx.state.gov.
Q [Pegasus]: have you seen Zeitgeist? Its a documentary movie that is full of evidences about the 11/9 attacks and the evidences of molten metal expolosives and the third bulidling
A [Todd Leventhal]: Pegasus, the most popular “documentary” about the 9/11 attacks is “Loose Change.” Its various editions have reportedly logged more than 10 million web views. I’ve researched the penultimate—or next to the last—version, “Loose Change Second Edition Recut.”Loose Change makes very sloppy mistakes in support of its false claim that a missile, not a plane, hit the Pentagon on September 11, 2001. The video mistakes two different sections of the large hole caused by the airliner for the entire hole and, ironically, features photographs that actually disprove its “small hole” theory.The best way to understand this is to review the pictures in a photo gallery I have created on this issue, at http://photos.america.gov/galleries/amgov/39/Sept_11_Pentagon/. As shown in a photo gallery on the attack, the plane’s fuselage and wings caused extensive damage mostly to the Pentagon’s ground floor while the plane’s tail fin and vertical stabilizer created a smaller impact hole on the second floor.“Loose Change” mistakenly identifies the portion of the hole on the second floor as the entire hole, and then argues from this mistaken premise that because such a large airliner could not have created such a small hole, the damage must have been caused by a missile. For more details, see the article I have written, at http://www.america.gov/st/pubs-english/2007/March/20070330134723abretnuh0.9919245.html. The molten metal was probably aluminum, mostly from the airplane. There was no evidence of explosives either at the World Trade Center twin towers or WTC 7. On this issue, see my articles at http://www.america.gov/st/webchat-english/2009/May/20060828133846esnamfuaK0.2676355.html, http://www.america.gov/st/webchat-english/2009/April/20090428135102atlahtnevel0.7969629.html and http://www.america.gov/st/webchat-english/2009/April/20090428110108atlahtnevel0.7957117.html.
Q [IRC Yaounde 1]: What about the Sculks and bones?
A [Todd Leventhal]: IRC Yaounde 1: Skull and Bones is a secret society at Yale University. Its members have included some very prominent Americans, including President George Herbert Walker Bush, President George W. Bush, and Senator John Kerry.Every year, Skull and Bones selects fifteen men and women of Yale’s junior class to join the society, especially those it views as leaders. It’s an elite college club. I don’t think there’s anything beyond that.
Amelia - CO.NX Moderator: Welcome! If you just joined us, introduce yourself and tell us where you are from! Join us for our next live chat on July 16 - L'état de la liberté des médias en Afrique francophone - http://www.facebook.com/pages/CoNx-See-the-World/26365096875#/event.php?eid=115886036496
Q [IRC Yaounde 1]: Did a plane crashed on the pentagon?
A [Todd Leventhal]: IRC Yaounde 1: There is no question that a plane hit the Pentagon on September 11. The remains of the bodies of the crew and passengers of American Airlines flight 77 were found at the Pentagon crash site, and positively identified by DNA. The flight’s black boxes were also recovered at the site.Numerous eyewitnesses saw the plane strike the Pentagon. Some saw passengers through the plane’s windows. Numerous photographs show airplane debris at the crash site, as was also witnessed by survivors and rescue personnel. See sections 4:57 to 6:00 of the video at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YVDdjLQkUV8 for pictures of airliner debris.For more information, see my article at http://www.america.gov/st/webchat-english/2009/April/20050628163417atlahtnevel0.1261103.html and Popular Mechanics, at http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/defense/1227842.html?page=6&c=y.
A [Todd Leventhal]: That's about all I can answer for the time being. I hope this answered some of your questions. I'm sorry I couldn't answer all the questions, but some of them take a lot of research.
Amelia - CO.NX Moderator: Thanks everyone for your participation! Check America.Gov next week for a transcript of this chat. Check out http://co-nx.state.gov to find future webchats and more info on CO.NX